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Pat-Vita for Fishes & Invertebrates

Pat-Vita purpose is to enhance the body immune system and body resistance against diseases and stress in fish and invertebrates.

PAT-Vital is specially formulated for enhancing the body immune system and body resistance against diseases without the use of chemicals, steroids, antibiotics and other harmful substances which causes side effects.

The effects of PAT-Vital on the fishes and invertebrates are as follows:
A. Better body
resistance against a wide range of bacterial and protozoan diseases

B. Improves general health and stimulates appetite. breeding and better eggs reproduction of fishes

C. Especially effective against Koi's pox, ulcers and red veins and when combined together with PAT-Antiviral

D. Prevention of white spots (Cryptocaryon irritants) in the reef aquarium

E. Non-toxic even when overdosed

F. Completely safe to humans and animals



Water Hardness, black or red algae
and how they affect your aquarium

Most plants are not fussy about water hardness and nutrient levels in most plant aquarium should be low, with phosphate levels in the tank at about 1 ppm and nitrate levels at about 10 ppm.

Plants that are fussy about the water hardness are few and far between. Some sword plants can even grow from a riverbed that was pure calcium carbonate. It does not get much harder than that! Yet, the swords were flourishing


A small benefit of having hard water is that it is often relatively high in carbonates, which will buffer the acidifying quality of added CO2.

If the pH of your tap water is high even after you have stored it out of the tap for a while, you can add CO2 to your aquarium and do not need to add calcium carbonate to buffer the water to manage the pH drop from the CO2.

Only softened water cannot be used because they add a lot of sodium to the water while removing magnesium and calcium and not good for planted aquariums.

Magnesium and calcium are actually trace nutrients for plants. Sodium in small amounts will not hurt plants, but in large amounts it can. If you feel compelled to reduce the magnesium and calcium content of the water--its  better off mixing rain water to the tap water.

A more expensive but controllable alternative would be to get a reverse osmosis (RO) filter and add RO water to the tap water or distilled water.



  Do Planted Tanks Require CO2?
Beautiful aquatic plants growth depends on lighting with low to moderate lighting, adding CO2 is not necessary.
  Welcome to the wonderful world of black beard algae. Technically this is a kind of red algae, but that classification does not define its appearance. This unwanted algae often shows up on older parts of plants and on slower-growing plants.

Black beard algae is a form of "red algae" in the genus Audouinella that attaches to edges of plant leaves that thrives in low CO2 water conditions.

  How much CO2 should you add to the water?
CO2 is only a problem for the fish if you add too much to the water. The amount you want to add is much lower than the harmful amount. A good target level for plants is about 20 to 30 parts per million. CO2 doesn't seem to stress fish until the level gets to be about 50 parts per million or higher.

Do Planted Tanks Require CO2? Beautiful aquatic plants growth depends on lighting. With low to moderate lighting, adding CO2 is not necessary.

Freshwater Java fern (Microsorum pteropus) can suffer from Java fern melt if blue-green algae is present due to nutrient deficiencies.

CO2 is only a problem for fishes if you add too much to the water. A good level for plants is about 20 to 30 ppm. CO2 doesn't stress fishes until the level gets to be about 50 ppm (parts per million).

Water Hardness, black or red algae affect your aquarium. Some sword plants growing from a riverbed that was pure calcium carbonate--yet, the swords were flourishing.

Tiny Foods for Small Fry. Cultured live foods for fry include vinegar eels, baby brine shrimp, microworms and infusoria. Once fish eggs have hatched, youíve only just begun the journey to breeding fish and raising their young.

Pruning and Planting. fern, stem or rosette are not trimmed the same way, liverwort Riccia fluitans are trimmed by merely separating a portion of the mass by pulling or snipping.

There is lot of algae build-up in my pond that lasts about six weeks. Would snails help to eliminate this problem? If so, can I use normal wild snails found in most outdoor lakes & ponds.

Donít Destroy Helpful Bacteria. Because the nitrosomonas and nitrobacter are the domineering bacteria populations in the biological filter.

(Hair algae above pic) Algae will start growing--if too much light are provided or extra nitrogen that the plants can't use-up.

Staghorn Algae outbreak due to nutrient imbalance (circle) enlarged to double size

The easiest way to deal with these blackish algae is to do three things....First, clean away what you can, by wiping or pruning.

Second, ensure that nutrient levels in the water are low: about 1 ppm for phosphates and about 10 ppm for nitrates. Third, add CO2 to maintain a level of about 25 ppm throughout the period when the lights are on. The level when the lights are off does not matter much.

If you cannot add CO2, try limiting the lighting level to no more than 2 watts per gallon. A word about testing for phosphates. Plants use phosphates that are not part of organic compounds.

If your test kit measures total phosphate ó organic and nonorganic, which are also called ortho-phosphates ó then your phosphate reading can be misleadingly high. You want to maintain about 1 ppm of ortho-phosphate.

You also might consider reducing the amount of light you are using, because 65 watts on a 20-gallon tank is a lot of light, especially if you are not adding CO2 to maintain about 25 ppm and running an aquarium with that much light makes it much more difficult to avoid algae issues.

Try swapping the 65-watt lamp and replace it with a 36-watt version; it depends on the particular ballast being used; a 40-watt ballast driving a 36-watt tube would be slightly overdriven by the ballast, but would be nowhere near 65 watts--Stay ahead of the game to avoid having algae problems.

Healthy Plants Require Balanced Growing conditions. An unbalanced planted aquarium need a high level of lighting without adding carbon dioxide.

How can I control the algae? My pond water becomes murky and over loaded with algae. My 10 ft X 5 ft pond contains six Koi fishes about 2 ft in length uses pH of about 7.0 rain water.

How to avoid having algae in your aquarium? Starve your plants and algae will grow. But can one feed the plants and avoid algae growth?


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