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Pat-(+)&(-)
for Marine & Freshwater Fishes

Pat-(+)&(-) purpose is for the treatment of external bacterial and fungal diseases. Benefits are its special formulation for the treatment, prevention and disinfectant of external bacterial diseases that causes tail and fin rot, cloudy eyes, swollen gills, red body patches, wounds, open sores and fungal diseased on the fishes.

Pat-(+)&(-) is not an antibiotic and does not create resistant strains of bacteria. It can safely be used for all types of fishes and plants and not for marine invertebrates.

Pat-(+)&(-) is non-toxic and biodegradable and the crystals at the bottom of the bottle are preservatives that does not affect the product efficiency. Caution: Remove all carbon filters before treatment starts and pH must be above 6.5 or add PAT-Biobuff to rise it.

Pat-(+)&(-) Packing Available in 40 ML, 500 ML and 3,800 ML size, treatment Capacity 500 ML treats 2,500 imperial gallons (11,250 liters). (Aquarium use) Apply 4 drops to 1 gallon (4.5 liters) of water every 4 days for at least 3 treatments.

Apply 8 drops per gallon (4.5 liters) for 30 minutes and remove fish if signs of stress is visible. Apply 1 drop to 5 gallons (22.5 liters) of water to prevent egg fungus.

Apply 20 drops to 1 gallon (4.5 liters) of water for disinfecting utensils and soak for at least 15 minutes 2. For 500 ML bottle (Pond use or large aquarium).

  Aquatic & Aquarium Tips

Favorite aquatic plants  are the swords plants of the genus Echinodorus
Echinodorus Osiris
- above pic, can tolerate temperatures even a little lower than 60 F or as high as 75 F degrees. Different "Echinodorus" provide a variety of shades of green and some spectacular red colorings.

Different Echinodorus provide a variety of shades of green and spectacular red. Echinodorus "Kleiner bar" is a small sword bearing a ruddy burnt sienna. In an aquarium without any added carbon dioxide (CO2), some of the larger species, like Echinodorus Bleheri (pic on the right) or "Ozelot," will grow slowly and remain small for months.

Echinodorus Osiris Melon Sword (right pic) has a mix of red and green. The red is more intense on the younger leaves.
Under optimum conditions of good light, nutrients and CO2, it can grow to 16 inches.

 

 
The commonly available and easiest to grow of the swords is the Echinodorus Bleheri. It is a beautiful green plant with up-to 20 inches long spearhead shaped leaves that can  grow 2 ft above the water.
Echinodorus Major cordifolius (right pic) can grow more than 20 inches but  pruning will help retard its growth.
 
  Sucker fish have the habit of cleaning debris off of tank surfaces and they are ideal for community tanks.

They are also very effective at scrubbing algae off many kinds of surfaces, including plant leaves and driftwood.

The daily algae consumption of one Ancistrus easily equal to more than what a dozen tiny "Otocinclus" can do in a month.

 
Echinodorus. Bleheri swords are easy to grow.

Its a beautiful green plant with long spearhead shaped leaves.

The best way to prune a sword is to peel and pull an outer leaf as close to the base as possible.

 
 
 
Echinodorus parviflorus (above pic) offers a delicate rose tone, grows to 6 inches if given plenty of light (more than 2 watts per gallon of high-quality fluorescent lighting) and suitable for aquascaping aquarium.
 
Loricaridae  suckermouth catfish: Peckoltia ucayalensis  (look similer to Ancistrus temminckii) or algae-eater catfish. Various species of (genus Loricaridae) will graze on the algae trying to grow on leaves.

Algae-eaters like the Gyrinocheilus aymonieri, are effective at removing some types of algae when they are young, but when mature can become unhelpful and unfriendly tenants in a community tank with preference for slime coat of fishes.

 
Starve your plants and algae will grow.
But can one feed the plants and avoid algae growth?

Swords plants benefit greatly from CO2 level of about 20 to 30 ppm. If the base of a sword plant is buried in the substrate, the base can rot. When you get a sword plant from a store, it has probably been grown at the nursery with the leaves out of the water and the faster way to grow sword.

If the plant comes with the roots in rock wool, remove as much of the rock wool as you can without tearing the roots because rock wool tends to promote root rot, especially if any dead roots are in the rock wool.

 

 

Black beard algae is a form of "red algae" in the genus Audouinella that attaches to edges of plant leaves that thrives in low CO2 water conditions. Siamese algae eaters (Crossocheilus siamensis) below pic will eat black beard algae and other plant material.

Healthy Plants Require Balanced Growing Conditions.
One way to have an unbalanced planted aquarium is to put a high level of lighting on an aquarium without adding carbon dioxide (CO2).

 
Favorite aquatic plants are the swords of the genus Echinodorus osiris, they can tolerate temperatures as low as 60 F or 75 F degrees.

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